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Breathing: physiology, regulation, delay possibilities

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Breathing: physiology, regulation, delay possibilities

Here we will speak in the external respiration of a person – those very inhales and exhales that we all do, and which can be in the zone of our attention and certain control. How do we breathe, and what follows from this?

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Phases of inhalation and exhalation

 

Breathing is known to be a reflex automatic process regulated by the central nervous system. During the inspiratory phase, contraction occurs:

  • the diaphragm, which bends downward, puts pressure on the organs in the abdominal cavity, thereby increasing the volume of the sternum;
  • the intercostal muscles, due to which the ribs move apart, and the chest cavity expands further.

When inhalation is carried out under standard natural conditions, at this phase the intra-alveolar pressure is approximately 3 millimeters of r.s. below atmospheric pressure, and, due to this discrepancy, air is freely directed into the respiratory tract, and the system itself finds equilibrium.

As for exhalation, this is already a reverse process, accompanied by an increase in intra-alveolar air and, accordingly, the withdrawal of exhaust air outside.

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Respiratory centers

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Two groups of cells of the central nervous system are responsible for regulating the automatism of respiration – the respiratory centers located:

  • in the posterior part of the brain, or rather, in its bulbar zone;
  • in the varoli bridge.

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The bulbar center also has its own division into inspiratory and expiratory, which, respectively, are responsible for the implementation of inhalation or exhalation. Both of these centers are affected by chemical impulses associated with the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood. It is here that the rhythm of breathing is established, and it is not surprising that this center, being sensitive to an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide, immediately responds by accelerating breathing.

As for the pons of varoli, it is possible to find apneustic and pneumotaxic centers in it, which are especially important in case of conscious cessation of breathing. The first of them is a kind of starting point of the inhalation impulse, and in the second, inhibitory signals are formed that balance the system.

The main function of this entire system is to maintain the content of carbon dioxide and oxygen at a level sufficient to ensure vital activity, and if the partial pressure of these vital gases changes during the regulation of respiration, this affects both the frequency and depth of respiration and the state of the body in the whole.

Of course, it is the concentration of carbon dioxide that affects the respiratory process more, since any change in it is immediately followed by the reaction of the respiratory centers. Bulbar receptors are stimulated, then one or both centers of the pons are stimulated, and they are already giving an impulse to one of the bulbar centers. Holding the breath can even be beneficial for the body, but exactly until the increase in carbon dioxide in the blood results in pronounced contractions of the diaphragm muscles. This means that the breath hold limit has been reached.

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Your technique works! I started to run and train my lungs in parallel. I would never have thought that I could run for so long without complaining of shortness of breath!

Виктория

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2020-05-10T16:42:47+00:00

Виктория

Your technique works! I started to run and train my lungs in parallel. I would never have thought that I could run for so long without complaining of shortness of breath!
As an experienced fitness trainer, I can say that the result of training is real! We teach our students to breathe correctly. Each workout begins with a warm up of the airways. And professionals train every day for 3 times for 15 minutes, it helps me a lot, and the body is healthier.

Николай

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2020-04-22T17:29:04+00:00

Николай

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Mom often asked me if I knew how to remove shortness of breath! Thank you very much for the information! I told my mother that she was delighted, because you don't even have to go anywhere, but just at home, on the couch. Now we train every day and the results are visible, shortness of breath goes away.

Ольга Семеновна

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2020-05-10T15:40:06+00:00

Ольга Семеновна

Mom often asked me if I knew how to remove shortness of breath! Thank you very much for the information! I told my mother that she was delighted, because you don't even have to go anywhere, but just at home, on the couch. Now we train every day and the results are visible, shortness of breath goes away.
The child goes swimming, but either the coach could not teach, or he did not want to learn to breathe correctly. I decided to deal with the issue myself. Your training yielded results very quickly. The coach says that the child is progressing very quickly.

Света

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2020-05-10T16:25:09+00:00

Света

The child goes swimming, but either the coach could not teach, or he did not want to learn to breathe correctly. I decided to deal with the issue myself. Your training yielded results very quickly. The coach says that the child is progressing very quickly.
I am fond of singing, self-taught. There were breathing problems. I started to train according to your method, now there are no problems with breathing. Thank you very much!

Флеш

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2020-05-10T15:59:02+00:00

Флеш

I am fond of singing, self-taught. There were breathing problems. I started to train according to your method, now there are no problems with breathing. Thank you very much!
I decided to buy your courses for my parents. They are already retirees and sometimes it was hard for them to laugh, and even at their age, the lungs cannot squeeze 100%. A couple of weeks have passed and they say that breathing has become much easier, they began to walk a lot, they say it really works. Recommend!

Скутер

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2020-05-10T16:36:13+00:00

Скутер

I decided to buy your courses for my parents. They are already retirees and sometimes it was hard for them to laugh, and even at their age, the lungs cannot squeeze 100%. A couple of weeks have passed and they say that breathing has become much easier, they began to walk a lot, they say it really works. Recommend!
I decided a year ago to keep fit and walk and run in the morning. But I did not run more than five laps, my lungs could not cope. After training according to your methods, I can run much more.

Фима

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2020-05-10T16:16:49+00:00

Фима

I decided a year ago to keep fit and walk and run in the morning. But I did not run more than five laps, my lungs could not cope. After training according to your methods, I can run much more.
I am a swimmer. You won't go anywhere if you don't breathe properly. Without a huge effort, a simple workout helps you start breathing correctly.

Виктор

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2020-05-10T15:34:50+00:00

Виктор

I am a swimmer. You won't go anywhere if you don't breathe properly. Without a huge effort, a simple workout helps you start breathing correctly.
Recently recovered from pneumonia. The disease was completely gone, but the heaviness in breathing and sometimes coughing remained. I decided to try your workouts and they really helped. Now I breathe quite freely and the cough has almost receded.

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2020-05-10T16:32:40+00:00

Питер

Recently recovered from pneumonia. The disease was completely gone, but the heaviness in breathing and sometimes coughing remained. I decided to try your workouts and they really helped. Now I breathe quite freely and the cough has almost receded.
I am fond of diving, but never before your courses for improving breathing, I could not hold my breath for more than one and a half minutes. Now I spend more than 2.5 minutes underwater. Amazing.

Натали

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2020-05-10T16:13:52+00:00

Натали

I am fond of diving, but never before your courses for improving breathing, I could not hold my breath for more than one and a half minutes. Now I spend more than 2.5 minutes underwater. Amazing.
Free diving. I needed good courses in lung development and training to breathe properly. Your technique worked and I really excel at it.

Дайвер

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2020-05-10T16:39:43+00:00

Дайвер

Free diving. I needed good courses in lung development and training to breathe properly. Your technique worked and I really excel at it.
Informative. I would never have thought that so much of everything inside us depends on proper breathing. I tried one of the techniques, I want to learn how to remove stress in a couple of minutes. I learned. And in total I did 15 minutes 3 times a day. Now, as soon as I start to get nervous, I breathe correctly for a minute and calm down.

Ольга

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2020-04-22T13:23:57+00:00

Ольга

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